16 March 2012

Water softening process - Demineralization process

Demineralization process is the modern water softening process. By applying this process the water obtained may be as pure as distilled water. Because not only the ions are removed those are responsible for water hardness but also some dissolved salt i.e. FeCO3, CaCl2 etc. can be removed. In this process strong acid cation resin and strong base anion resin are used. Cation in water like Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium removed by cation resin. And for anion like Chloride, Sulphate anion resin are used.

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11 March 2012

Water softening process - Base Exchange process

It is the most simple and used process. Water obtained by using this process has a hardness of 0-20. Water is softened by exchanging Ca2+ and Mg2+ ion with the help of zeolite. That’s why it is also called Zeolite or permutit process. While water is passed into Zeolite the ions are exchanged. Zeolite is the Hydrated silicate of sodium and aluminium. The general formula is:

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09 March 2012

Water softening process - Lime soda process

Hydrated lime Ca(OH)2 and sodium Carbonate are used in this method to precipitate Calcium and Magnesium ions. Particularly, Ca(OH)2 is used for Carbonate ions and NaCO3 is used for non Carbonate  ions.

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28 February 2012

Soft water - water softening methods

Soft water:
The water which does not contain HCO3-, Cl-, SO42- salt of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Al3+ & form foam easily by reacting with soap is called soft water e.g. Rain water.

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26 February 2012

Problems caused by hard water in textile industry

Hard water can create so many problems during wet processing from desizing to finishing in textile mills. Since every process is related to the next process, so all  processes should be done precisely to get best result. To do it first we have to know what problems hard water can create in different stage of wet processing.

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